Electronic BookOnline encyclopaedias and dictionariesInternet-only journal articlePre-publication journal articleOnline newspaper articleOnline report from a corporate authorOnline conference reportVideo, film or broadcastContributions to a video, film or broadcastDVD or CD-ROMPodcastPhotograph from an online collectionOnline press releaseSocial media - blogs, Facebook and TwitterWeb page with an individual authorWeb page with an organisation as an authorOnline statisticsTelevision programmes viewed on the internet e.g. iPlayerOnline video e.g. from Screencast or YouTubeLecture notes from BlackBoard Learn
Books with one authorBooks with two authorsBooks with two or more authorsBooks which are editedContributions or chapters in an edited bookMultiple works by the same authorEncyclopaedias and DictionariesBook or report from a seriesBritish National FormularyJournal Articles - required elementsJournal articles with one authorJournal articles with two authorsJournal articles with more than two authorsJournal articles where no author details are listedNewspaper articlesActs of ParliamentStatutory InstrumentsOfficial publications such as Command PapersLaw ReportsReport from a corporate authorConference ReportConference PaperDissertationVideo, film or broadcastDVD or CD-ROMPictures, images, tables, figures and photographsPress ReleaseStatisticsBooks - required elementsLecture NotesEuropean DirectiveBritish StandardPerson-to-person communications (letters, emails, interviews, etc.)NICE Guideline
Author's name cited in the textAuthor's name not cited directly in the textMore than one author cited in the textMore than one author not cited directly in the textTwo authors for the same workMore than two authors for a workSeveral works by one author in different yearsSeveral works by one author in the same yearChapter authors in edited worksCorporate authorsNo authorNo datePage numbersQuoting portions of published textSecondary referencing
Book in APAChapter from an edited book in APAJournal article in APAWorld Wide Web page in APAArticles from newspapers and magazines in APATwo authorsThree or more authorsSeveral works by one author in the same yearMultiple sourcesAnonymous sourceTests and other materialsCochrane LibraryNICE GuidelineBritish Standard
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Life & Health Sciences Referencing Guide   Tags: american psychological association, apa, harvard, life and health sciences, referencing  

Last Updated: Dec 20, 2016 URL: http://guides.library.ulster.ac.uk/lhsharvard Print Guide RSS UpdatesEmail Alerts

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Why Reference?

Text Box: Life & Health Sciences
Harvard Style of Citing References

  Any piece of academic writing that you do at university will require a reference list. Referencing gives your

  writing very important elements such as:






Which System?


In using the Harvard system you need to do two things:

  • In the text you must include an 'in-text citation' e.g. (Parahoo 2006)
  • At the end of your work you must include a complete list of references, in alphabetical order by author's surname

There must be a direct match between your in-text citation and the list at the end of your work with the exception of person-to-person communications.

A bibliography lists relevant items that you have used in the preparation of the assignment but not necessarily cited in your text.  If you include a bibliography in your work, this should also be in the Harvard style and will demonstrate that you have read widely. Individual Schools in the Faculty will advise if a bibliography is required.  


Contact Details for the Life and Health Sciences Library Subject Team


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